What Is Religion?
Religion is a complex of beliefs, rituals, practices, and codes that are shared among people. It provides a framework for understanding the world, a sense of purpose and identity, a source of community, a moral code and system of ethics, and an explanation of why things happen. It is also often a source of social cohesion and stability, a means to achieve psychological and physical well-being, and may motivate people to work for positive social change.
Most religions have a core belief in the supernatural or spiritual. They deal with the nature of God and the universe, the soul, life after death, a god or gods, angels, demons, spirits, or other supernatural beings. They usually include a system of sacred texts, holy days and places, religious symbols and art, and a system of worship and sacraments. They often have codes of recognition and expected behaviour, including rules for marriage, divorce, and inheritance, and may establish hierarchies within a society. Religions usually have some type of authority figure, or god, which provides guidance to followers and answers their questions.
The concept of religion is a social construct, meaning that it is defined by the social context in which it exists and by the assumptions of its participants. It is therefore difficult to provide a precise definition of religion. Some scholars, such as Edward Burnett Tylor, have attempted to define religion by limiting it to the belief in supernatural beings. However, this approach has the disadvantage of excluding many religions from the category, and it overlooks the deeper motive that underlies such beliefs.
More recently, there has been a move away from normative methods in the study of religion to a more phenomenological approach. Hans Jonas and Rudolf Otto have used the concept of Geworfenheit in their studies of Gnosticism and Buddhism respectively. This allows for the comparison of religions and the recognition of common characteristics without trying to identify a universal essence. This has led to the development of polythetic definitions of religion, which recognize that an evolving social phenomenon can have more than one property and avoids the ethnocentric identification of a prototypical religion.
Religions have provided inspiration for some of the most beautiful and enduring human creations, such as architecture, music, dance, drama, poetry, and painting. They have also been a source of entertainment, with shamanistic healing, magical rituals, and spectacular performances, including the climactic battle in the Mahabharata, the epic poem of the Hindu gods. Religions have also been a source of fear and anxiety, but also hope and joy, for humans. This is a result of the fundamental human need for an explanation of the world around them, and for something that will help them cope with the inevitability of their own mortality. This need has been described as a human desire to hope for immortality, for a higher power to care for and protect humanity, and for an ultimate purpose for their existence. These religious responses have been a source of comfort, support, and community for millions of people throughout history.